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# Operational Examples

### Weather Examples

Figure: Stratus rain, from Honeywell Radar Training Course, Part 2, Slide 11.

Stratus Rain is normally no higher than 15,000 feet and can spread for hundreds of miles; it is not particularly dangerous.

Airborne radar cannot differentiate between light rain and the ground when at high altitude looking down. The reflectivity of the ground, especially if it is wet, greatly exceeds the water droplets. Once the aircraft has descended and is looking up at the rain, the problem goes away.

Figure: Stratus rain summary, from Honeywell Radar Training Course, Part 6, Slide 7.

#### Ordinary Thunderstorm

Figure: Thunderstorm, from Honeywell Radar Training Course, Part 2, Slide 9.

The highest concentration of rain and rain-covered hail is in what meteorologists call the "bright band," typically located between 8,000 and 17,000 feet. This area offers the highest reflectivity, where the most information to radar is available. The beam must be pointed into this area to properly evaluate the storm's danger.

#### Super-cell Thunderstorm

Figure: Super-cell thunderstorm, from Honeywell Radar Training Course, Part 2, Slide 10.

A Super-Cell Thunderstorm is much wider than an ordinary thunderstorm and can often be identified by the radar shadow it creates. (The green arc above is ground clutter, but this ground clutter doesn't show behind the super-cell thunderstorm which obscures all radar returns from behind.)

#### Radar Example of Stratus Rain, Ordinary Thunderstorms, and Super-Cells

Figure: Example weather targets, from Honeywell Radar Training Course, Part 2, Slide 12.

#### Radar Example of a Blind Alley

Figure: Blind alley, from Honeywell Radar Training Course, Part 2, Slide 15.

#### Radar Example of a Thunderstorm Downwind

Figure: Upwind deviation, from Honeywell Radar Training Course, Part 2, Slide 16.

Whenever possible, deviate to the upwind side since a thunderstorm can create downwind eddy currents (turbulence).

### An Example: 1 Jun 2011 over KBED

Photo: From Eddie's cockpit.

#### The Window Shots

Photos: Views from the right seat, from Eddie's cockpit.

### Example Mishaps

Just a few to ponder: